Engineering-Medicine Integration Development and Use in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation

Posted on December 10, 2022

Clinical treatment and healthcare engineering have improved odds of success thanks to the fast-moving integration of engineering and medicine. A significant global health issue is traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the symptoms it causes. Currently, these methods are mainly employed in the treatment of TBI.

Recent developments in the fusion of medicine and engineering and how they are used in the rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. 

Our discussion focuses primarily on the combination of medicine and engineering in the treatment of TBI: Artificial intelligence (AI), Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), brain-computer interfaces (BCI), and wearable-assisted devices. 

Computerized reasoning (AI)

Logic, cognitive psychology, decision theory, neuroscience, linguistics, computer engineering, and other disciplines make up the large interdisciplinary topic of artificial intelligence.  

Artificial intelligence is progressively transforming how doctors practice their clinical skills. Artificial intelligence is now being applied to areas formerly thought to be the domain of human expertise thanks to the ongoing development of digital data collecting, machine learning, and computing foundations. TBI (traumatic brain injury) and AI (artificial intelligence) have long been explored fields. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been widely employed in the rehab of TBI survivors in recent years. Virtual reality (VR), robotics, computer-assisted rehabilitation training, and advanced mobile technologies are the key applications of AI in TBI rehabilitation.

Computer-Assisted Rehabilitation Training

Traumatic brain damage has a number of serious side effects, including cognitive dysfunction (TBI). After a TBI, quality of life suffers significantly, and depressive symptoms' effects on how well people play out their emotional roles are influenced by cognitive impairment. The most common application of computer-assisted rehabilitation training is in the cognitive rehabilitation of those with traumatic brain injury.

A research of 35 patients with traumatic or vascular brain injury indicated that cognitive training can significantly improve the rehabilitative impact following TBI when compared to traditional treatment, giving patients with TBI new hope. An overview of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR), which employs multimedia and informatics resources to leverage particular hardware and software to directly trigger the expression of impaired neurocognitive function through programs.

The findings indicated that CACR significantly improved cognition in TBI patients, but more research is needed to determine the scope and nature of these improvements. Therefore, we can conclude that computer-based interventions appear to hold great promise for enhancing working memory in individuals with acquired traumatic brain injury. However, these interventions are more frequently used for cognitive rehabilitation following acquired traumatic brain injury, and the durability of their efficacy needs further research.

While computer-assisted rehabilitation training may be beneficial for TBI patients to enhance their verbal and visual working memory, other domains including attention, processing speed, and executive functions were not improved by the interventions, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Computer-assisted rehabilitation training's benefits and drawbacks.


  • A notable improvement in overall function.
  • How easy and comfortable it is to use.


  • Insufficient research on these therapies' potential negative effects

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI)

The field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), which has advanced significantly over the past few decades, may one day be able to replace the brain's normal pathways for sending signals to the muscles and peripheral nerves, providing paralyzed patients with a new means of communication and computer control. The brain-computer interface (BCI) can transform brain impulses collected via non-invasive and invasive techniques into control signals for some external devices, like a computer cursor or robot limb.

Numerous clinical investigations supported the usefulness of BCI in the rehabilitation of TBI patients. By employing brain organoids or external microelectronics, scientists employed neural networks to stop memory loss in TBI patients, serving as a model for future therapeutic approaches. Additionally, the combination of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies improves treatment.

Brain-computer interfaces: benefits and drawbacks (BCI).


  • Better control of the system and greater effects on brain reorganizations is possible by invasive BCIs, which have high accuracy and increase remote access to rehabilitation that supports the transition to home. Implantable BCIs have also provided neural recordings with higher spatial resolutions.


  • Only having two signal output options available at a time

Signal deterioration (from implanted recording electrodes), accuracy and stability of neural decoding algorithms over time, system miniaturization and muscle fatigue when utilizing FES, and overall system usability.

The use of BCI in TBI rehabilitation still requires further investigation even though the technology has improved greatly over the years and still confronts numerous difficulties.