Rehabilitation of Traumatic Brain Injury: Application of Medicine-Engineering Integration

Posted on November 11, 2022

Healthcare engineering and clinical treatment have improved odds of success thanks to the fast-moving intersection of engineering and medicine. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the symptoms that it causes have grown to be a serious issue for global health. The rehabilitation of TBIs currently makes extensive use of these strategies. We discuss recent advancements in the fusion of medicine and engineering and their applications in the rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. Our discussion focuses primarily on the following areas: artificial intelligence (AI), brain-computer interfaces (BCI), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and wearable-assisted devices.

Applying medicine-engineering combination to TBI rehabilitation

Second-generation AI

Logic, cognitive psychology, decision theory, neurology, linguistics, computer engineering, and other multidisciplinary disciplines are all part of significant topic of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is gradually transforming clinical medicine. Artificial intelligence is growing in areas traditionally thought to be the domain of human experts due to the continual growth of digital data collecting, machine learning, and computing foundations.

A lot of research has been done in the areas of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and artificial intelligence (AI). The rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has seen a significant increase in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years. AI is primarily used in computer-assisted rehabilitation training, robotics-assisted rehabilitation training, virtual reality (VR), and advanced mobile technology for TBI recovery.

Training for computer-assisted rehabilitation

Traumatic brain damage has several significant aftereffects, including cognitive impairment (TBI). After a TBI, quality of life drastically decreases, and depression symptoms' effects on emotional role performance are mostly attributed to cognitive impairment. The most popular kind of cognitive therapy for those with traumatic brain injuries is, by far, computer-assisted rehabilitation training (TBI).

A study including 35 patients who had suffered traumatic or vascular brain injuries discovered that cognitive training could significantly enhance the rehabilitative impact following TBI as compared to traditional treatment, giving TBI sufferers new hope.

The results of another study that looked at the effectiveness of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) in people who had suffered traumatic brain injuries (TBI) showed that CACR significantly improved the cognition of TBI patients. However, more research is still needed to determine these improvements' full scope and nature. 

We can infer from the foregoing that computer-based interventions appear to hold great promise for enhancing working memory in individuals with acquired traumatic brain injury. Still, it is more frequently used for cognitive rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. The durability of its efficacy is still being researched.

However, according to a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, the therapies did not improve other domains, including processing speed, attention, and executive functions. To improve their verbal and visual working memory, computer-assisted rehabilitation training may be helpful for TBI patients.

We can conclude that further research must be done on how computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) can treat TBI.

Training for computer-assisted rehabilitation: benefits and drawbacks.


  • Its comfort and convenience of usage, as well as the overall function's noticeable improvement


  • There isn't enough research to establish these therapies' potential side effects.

Computer-assisted Interfaces

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI)Third-party 

In the coming years, brain-computer interfaces (BCI), which have advanced dramatically over the past few decades, may be able to replace the brain's natural output routes for peripheral nerves and muscles and enable paralyzed individuals to employ a new form of communication and computer control. A brain-computer interface (BCI) can transform brain impulses received by noninvasive and invasive techniques into signals that can be used to operate some external devices, like a robot arm or computer cursor.

Interfaces between the brain and computers: benefits and drawbacks (BCI).


  • High accuracy; Better system control.
  • Increasing remote access to rehab aiding transition into the house; 
  • Greater effects on brain reorganizations; 
  • Implantable BCIs have produced neural recordings with increased spatial resolutions.


  • Only having a two-choice signal output representation capability.

The application of BCI in TBI rehabilitation is still in its early stages, even though BCI technology has made considerable strides over the years.